Tokamak – is an experimental facility to generate and study controlled thermonuclear fusion, as well as to qualify modules and technologies for future thermonuclear reactors.

Tokamak T-15MD

Experimental thermonuclear installation Tokamak T-15MD

Experimental thermonuclear installation Tokamak T-15MD

Experimental thermonuclear installation Tokamak T-15MD

The National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute" jointly with the NPO “GKMP” LLCis in charge of construction of the tokamak T-15МД (Experimental thermal nuclear facility)within the framework of the federal program, and at the same time of the technological system upgrade. The magnetic system of the tokamak T-15МДshall be supplied with and retain hot plasma in divertor configuration. Plasma parameters are as follows: major radius 1.48 m, minor radius 0.67, elongation 1.7 – 1.9 and triangularity 0.3 – 0.4, plasma current 2MA, toroidal magnetic field on plasma axis is 2 T. The facility is equipped with the system to additionally heat-up and maintain current (Padd = 15-20 MW) that enables to reach the high temperature (Ti ~ Te ~ 5-9 keV) and plasma density (ne~1020m-3)in discharge with the impulse length over 30 sec. The magnetic system includes toroidal winding and poloidal magnet system. The latter can createone-zero and double-zero divertor magnetic configuration. The r supply system ensures the proper current behavior within magnetic system winding.

Tokamak T-15МД is a ground-breaking facility unrivaled in the world in terms of parameters: a toroidal field is 2 T at the aspect ratio of 2.2. The research agenda for Tokamak T-15МДis to be focused on the most critical ITER issues, such as the mechanism to create and maintain transportation barriers, stationary generation of non-induction current, heating and keeping of hot plasma, process control in divertor, managingthe overall instability and occasional energy bursts on the wall etc. The program of physical research is focused on mounting parameters different from other tokamaks.

As a prototype of thermonuclear neutron source (TNS-0) the Tokamak T-15МД will be used as a facility to qualify such subsystems like stationary injectors for fast atoms, as well as to study the interaction of fast atom beams with the basic plasma in order to test materials and technologies, in particular those related to lithium, of the first wall, divertors etc.

While performing experiments with the closed lithium and hydrogen isotope circulation loop in quasi-stationary operating mode during 30 s, one expects a record power density (3 times higher than any relevant foreign counterparts) of the first tokamak-reactor at 0.3 MW/m2to ensure a technological transfer from experimental facilities to industrial thermonuclear and hybrid reactors CTF. The results of these studies will contribute to the physical and technological basis to justify creation of stationary thermonuclear reactors and tokamak-based advanced hybrid systems.

The facility will be equipped with the additional plasma heating system and current input at plasma power Padd = 15-20 MW that will enable to reach the high temperature (Ti ~ Te ~ 5-9 keV) and the plasma density (ne~1020m-3) in discharge with 30 simpulse duration. This system includes neutral injection (NI) (3 injectors 2 MW/75keV, N0), electron cyclotron heating up (7 gyrotrons 1.0-1.5 MW each, f = 110-120 GHz that enable the heating-up within the second harmonic and Bernstein mode), ion cyclotronic heating (3 antennas 2 MW each, including the possible current maintenance by helicons), lower-hybrid heating and current maintenance (4 MW, f = 2.45 GHz grill)

Components:

  • Internal dimensions of the chamber in vertical direction 3.39 m;

  • Wall thickness 5…8 mm;

  • Chamber volume 47 m3;

  • Ultimate background pressure 10-5 Pa;

  • Wall covering – graphite FP479;

  • Vacuum chamber material – stainless steel AISI 321.

The magnetic system is designed to generate and maintain the hot plasma in divertor configuration. Magnetic coils are from silver containing copper rod of rectangular cross-section and cross-drilled to supply the cold water. All conductors are wrapped in special vacuum sintered insulation and put into steel casing.

The toroidal coils have the following dimensions:

  • Internal diameter 5050-6322 mm;

  • Outer diameter 5170-6640 mm;

  • Height 210-227 mm;

  • Mass of the coil 4050-69

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Plasma parameters:

  • Major radius 1.48 m;

  • Minor radius 0.67 m;

  • Plasma current 2MA;

  • Toroidal magnetic field along plasma axis 2 T.

The facility will be equipped with the additional plasma heat-up system and current input at plasma power Padd = 15-20 MW that will enable to reach high temperature (Ti ~ Te ~ 5-9 keV) and the discharged plasma density (ne~1020m-3) with expected discharge duration of 30 s. Tokamak vacuum chamber is designed to generate plasma with thermonuclear parameters, locate components inside the chamber and diagnostics. 

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